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Actual Cost

Acceptance criteria

The criteria which must be met before the project deliverables are accepted. These may include qualitative and quantitative performance requirements.

Action learning

Learning by working on real problems, implementing solutions, and reviewing and reflecting on the learning process.

Active learning

Learning driven primarily by the learner, with the instructor acting as a facilitator. See also self-directed learning


An element of work performed during the course of a project. An activity normally has an estimate of duration, cost, and resource requirement. Activities are normally subdivided into tasks (see task). Each project phase is composed of several activities.

Activity code

One or more numerical or text values that identify characteristics of the work or in some way categorize the schedule activity that allows filtering and ordering of activities within reports.

Activity definition

The process of identifying the specific schedule activities that need to be performed to produce the various project deliverables.

Activity list

A documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so project team members understand what work is to be performed.

Activity resource estimating

The process of estimating the types and quantities of resources required to perform each schedule activity.

Activity sequencing

The process of identifying and documenting dependencies among schedule activities.

Actual cost

Total costs actually incurred and recorded in accomplishing work performed during a given time period for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Actual cost can sometimes be direct labour hours alone, direct costs alone, or all costs including indirect costs. Also referred to as the actual cost of work performed (ACWP).


Actual Cost of Work Performed - see Actual Cost

Adult learning

The processes by which adults learn and build on their existing knowledge and skills.


The aim expresses the purpose and rationale for achieving a defined objective. The aim is generally expressed in generic or abstract terms.


Australian Institute of Project Management


Australian Institute of Training and Development

Analogous estimating

An estimating technique that uses the values of parameters, such as scope, cost, budget, and duration or measures of scale such as size, weight, and complexity from a previous, similar activity as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future activity. It is frequently used to estimate aparameter when there is a limited amount of detailed information about the project (e.g., in the early phases). Analogous estimating is a form of expert judgment. Analogous estimating is most reliable when the previous activities are similar in fact and not just in appearance, and the project team members preparing the estimates have the needed expertise.


Australian National Training Authority


Australian Qualifications Framework


Australian Recognition Framework


The process of gathering and judging evidence in order to decide whether a person has achieved a standard or objective. See also competency-based assessment.

Assessment reliability

The consistency of an assessment outcome; for example, different assessors using the same evidence making the same judgement, or the same assessor making the same judgement about the same evidence on different occasions.

Assessment tool

A method for the gathering of evidence for assessment, such as a knowledge test or a checklist of practical performance.


A person qualified to carry out assessment.


Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration. Assumptions are made to allow project planning to proceed but must be tested before finalising the project plan. Assumptions incur a degree of risk to the project.

Australian Institute of Project Management

The Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM) is the peak body for project management in Australia. Formed in 1976 as the Project Managers' Forum, AIPM has been instrumental in progressing the profession of project management in Australia over the past 30 years.

Australian Institute of Training and Development

A national association for people involved in training and human resource development.

Australian National Training Authority

A Commonwealth statutory authority with reponsibility for the development of national policy, goals and objectives for the vocational education and training sector; the development, management and promotion of the National Training Framework; the administration and funding of national programs; and the collection and analysis of national statistical data on the vocational education and training system.

Australian Qualifications Framework

A nationally consistent set of qualifications for all post-compulsory education and training in Australia, as follows:
Higher education sector

  • Doctoral Degree
  • Masters Degree
  • Graduate Diploma
  • Graduate Certificate
  • Bachelor Degree
  • Advanced Diploma
  • Diploma

Vocational education and training sector

  • Advanced Diploma
  • Diploma
  • Certificate IV
  • Certificate III
  • Certificate II
  • Certificate I

School sector

  • Senior Secondary Certificate of Education
Australian Recognition Framework

A set of nationally agreed registration requirements for training providers, their products and services.

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Backward pass

The calculation of late finish dates and late start dates for scheduling activities. This is determined by working backwards through the schedule network logic from the project’s end date.


An approved plan for a project, plus or minus approved changes. It is compared to actual performance to determine if performance is within acceptable variance thresholds. Generally refers to the current baseline, but may refer to the original or some other baseline. Usually used with a modifier (e.g. cost performance baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline, technical baseline).


Budgeted Cost of Work Performed - see Earned Value


Benchmarking is a methodology that is used to search for best practices. Benchmarking can be applied to strategies, policies, operations, processes, products, and organizational structures.

Blended learning

A combination of learning modes to deliver a course or module, such as distance education and face-to-face study in classes, tutorials, practical sessions or workshops (also called mixed-mode delivery).


Business Process Analysis

Broad strategy

Describes the sequence of events that will make up the project and is normally in chronological order and in phases. May also contain other key aspects of the project; for example, contract strategy and performance measures against phases.


Business Requirements Specification


The approved cost estimate for the project or the approved funding allocated to a particular activity or project

Business case

The Business case provides the rational and justification for the development of a project. It establishes the basis for expenditure, to define objectives and outputs with respect to the option selection, scope definition, budget requirements, and implementation considerations.

Business process analysis

The document produced to record and obtain agreement on the business process requiring introduction or change as a result of the project.

Business requirements specification

The document produced to record and obtain agreement on the new or changed business requirements resulting from the implementation of the project.

Business scope creep

Occurs when decisions that are made with reference to a project that is designed to solve or meet the requirements and needs of the organisation or strategy. Business scope creep changes may be a result of poor requirements definition early in development, or the failure to include the users of the project until the later stage of the development life cycle

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Are used to define work and non-work periods in order to schedule activities realistically. The software allows multiple calendars including global, project and individual resource.

Calender units

The smallest unit of time used in scheduling a project. Calendar units are generally in hours, days, or weeks, but can also be in quarter years, months, and shifts or even in minutes.


Competency-based Assessment


Competency-based training, computer-based training

Change control

Referring to any change made to the original planning of the project will be deemed a change. The control of these changes requires identifying, documenting, approving or rejecting and controlling the changes to the project baselines.

Change request

Requests to in any way modify the original or agreed baselines for the project. Only formally documented change requests are processes and only approved change requests are implemented.


A characteristic is a distinctive feature or property of something. Characteristics can be inherent or assigned. An inherent characteristic exists in something or is a permanent feature of something, while an assigned characteristic is a feature that is attributed or attached to something.

Closing processes

Those processes performed to formally terminate all activities of a project or phase.

Co-operative learning

A learning method in which students work together in small groups.

Communication management

Planning, monitoring, and controlling the exchange of information between the members of the project team and between the project team and stakeholders.

Communication management plan

The document that describes: the communications needs and expectations for the project; how and in what format information will be communicated; when and where each communication will be made; and who is responsible for providing each type of communication. The communication management plan is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the project management plan.


The ability to perform tasks and duties to the standard expected in employment.

Competency standard

An industry-determined specification of performance which sets out the skills, knowledge and attitudes required to operate effectively in employment. Competency standards are made up of units of competency, which are themselves made up of elements of competency, together with performance criteria, a range of variables, and an evidence guide. Competency standards are an endorsed component of a training package.

Competency-based assessment

The gathering and judging of evidence in order to decide whether a person has achieved a standard of competence.

Competency-based training

Training which develops the skills, knowledge and attitudes required to achieve competency standards.

Completion report

The purpose of the completion report is to formally close-out the project, provide a high level summary of the project performance and outcomes including the identification of learnings to assist future projects.

Computer-based training

An educational method in which a computer is the primary medium for instruction and learning.


The concept phase of the project cycle provides for definition of requirements so that proposals may be measured against corporate benchmarks. This enables decisions to be made about whether a proposal should proceed to the development phase.


A concession is a special approval that is granted to release a nonconforming product for use or delivery. Concessions are usually limited by time and quantity and tend to specify that nonconforming characteristics may not violate specified limits.

Configuration (baseline) control

A system of procedures that allows monitoring and control of the emerging project scope against the scope baseline. Requires documentation and management approval to any change to the baseline.

Configuration control

Applied to the technical aspects of the project, configuration control involves identifying and documenting the functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service or component; recording and reporting each change and its implementation status; and supporting the audit of the output. Often referred to as change control in systems development projects.


To conform means to meet or comply with requirements. There are many types of requirements. There are quality requirements, customer requirements, product requirements, management requirements, legal requirements, and so on.
Requirements can be explicitly specified or implied. A specified requirement is one that has been stated (in a document, for example). When your organisation meets a requirement, you can say that it conforms to that requirement.


The state, quality, or sense of being restricted to a given course of action or inaction. An applicable restriction or limitation, either internal or external to a project, which will affect the performance of the project or a process. For example, a schedule constraint is any limitation or restraint placed on the project schedule that affects when an activity can be scheduled and is usually in the form of a fixed imposed date.

Contingency planning

The identification of alternative means for achieving project objectives. The development of a management plan that identifies alternatives to be used if specified risk events occur.

Contingency reserve

The amount of funds or time needed above the estimate to reduce the risk of overruns to a level acceptable to the organisation. This reserve should be directly related to identified risks.

Continual improvement

Continual improvement is a set of activities that an organisation carries out in order to enhance its ability to meet requirements. Continual improvements can be achieved by carrying out audits, self-assessments, management reviews, and benchmarking projects. Continual improvements can also be realised by collecting data, analysing information, setting objectives, and implementing corrective and preventive actions.


A contract is a mutually binding agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified product or service and obligates the buyer to pay for it.

Contract administration

Monitoring and control of performance, reviewing progress, making payments, recommending modifications and approving contractor actions to ensure compliance with contractual terms during contract execution.


The actions of directing implementation of activities against the defined plan to minimise variances with the plan. It involves comparing actual performance with planned performance, analysing variances, assessing trends to effect process improvements, evaluating possible alternatives, and recommending appropriate corrective action as needed.

Corporate repository

Storage of the documentation and lessons learnt from a project.


A correction is any action that is taken to eliminate a nonconformity. However, corrections do not address causes. When applied to products, corrections can include reworking products, reprocessing them, regrading them, assigning them to a different use, or simply destroying them.

Corrective action

Corrective actions are steps that are taken to remove the causes of an existing nonconformity or undesirable situation. The corrective action process is designed to prevent the recurrence of nonconformities or undesirable situations. It tries to make sure that existing nonconformities and situations don’t happen again. It tries to prevent recurrence by eliminating causes. Corrective actions address actual problems. Because of this, the corrective action process can be thought of as a problem solving process.

Cost budgeting

Involves allocation of the overall cost estimate to individual work activities and time frame. The project budget is expressed in outturn dollars to reflect the actual completion cost of the project. These costs include the component costs of concept development, design development, detailed design, land acquisition, alterations to public utility plant, construction, handover and project management commencing with the development of the project proposal.

Cost controls

The processes of gathering, accumulating, analysing, reporting, and managing costs on an ongoing basis, including cost change management, actual versus budget monitoring, variance analysis, cost schedule control of reporting, progressive analysis, and corrective action.

Cost estimating

A calculated prediction of the amount of money required to undertake a specific amount of work, expressed in dollar values of the year in which it was prepared, or, alternatively, in out-turn dollars. It is prepared in a systematic manner appropriate to the size and complexity of the project, and to a level of accuracy commensurate with the available information, and its intended use. It may include some prior expenditure.

Cost management plan

The document that sets out the format and establishes the activities and criteria for planning, structuring, and controlling the project costs. The cost management plan is usually contained as an appendix or attachment to the project management plan

Cost performance index

A measure of cost efficiency on the project. It is the ratio of earned value (EV) to actual costs (AC). CPI = EV divided by AC.


A structured and integrated program of education or training, usually consisting of a number of modules (subjects) or shorter programs, and leading to the award of a qualification.

Course content

The subject matter, activities, units of competency, etc. of a course of study.

Course evaluation

The process or results of assessing the effectiveness and outcomes of a course of study.


Computer software and associated materials designed for educational or training purposes.


Cost Performance Index


Critical Path Method


A schedule compression technique in which cost and schedule tradeoffs are analysed to determine how to obtain the greatest amount of compression for the least incremental cost. Typical approaches for crashing a schedule include reducing schedule activity durations and increasing the assignment of resources on schedule activities.

Critical activity

Any activity on the critical path where any slippage of the activity will extend the project end date. Most commonly determined by using the critical path method (note: although some activities are 'critical' in the dictionary sense without being on the critical path, this distinction is seldom made in the project environment.)

Critical path

The series of interdependent project activities, connected end-to-end, which determines the longest path through the project network and hence the shortest total duration of the project. The critical path may change from time to time as tasks are completed behind or ahead of schedule.

Critical path method

A network analysis technique used to predict project duration by analysing which sequence of activities (which path) has the least amount of scheduling flexibility. Early dates are calculated by means of a forward pass using a specified start date. Late dates are calculated by means of a backward pass starting from a specified completion date (usually the forward pass's calculated project early finish date).


The specifications for a course or subject (module) which describe all the learning experiences a student undergoes, generally including objectives, content, intended learning outcomes, teaching methodology, recommended or prescribed assessment tasks, assessment exemplars, etc.


Project Management: The person or group who commissioned the work and will benefit from the end results.
Quality Management System: A customer is anyone who receives products or services from a supplier organisation. Customers can be people or organisations and can be either external or internal to the supplier organisation. For example, a factory may supply products or services to another factory (customer) within the same organisation. Examples of customers include clients, consumers, end-users, purchasers, retailers, and beneficiaries.

Customer satisfaction

Customer satisfaction is a perception. It is also a question of degree. It can vary from high satisfaction to low satisfaction. If customers believe that you've met their requirements, they experience high satisfaction. If they believe that you've not met their requirements, they experience low satisfaction.

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Any unique and verifiable product, result, or task that is produced to complete a particular process, phase, or a project. A deliverable is a measurable, tangible, verifiable item produced as part of a project.

Dependency constrained

The dependencies between the tasks can affect the length of the overall project.

Design and development

Design and development is a process (or a set of processes). This process uses resources to transform requirements (inputs) into characteristics or specifications (outputs) for products, processes, and systems.

Design and development review

Design and development review is a set of activities whose purpose is to evaluate the suitability, adequacy, effectiveness, and sometimes the efficiency of a set of characteristics or specifications. Design and development review can be used to evaluate product, process, and system characteristics or specifications. In this context, an effective set of characteristics or specifications is one that has the potential to achieve planned results or realise planned activities.

Design and development validation

Design and development validation is a process. This process uses objective evidence to confirm that products meet the requirements which define their intended use or application. Whenever specified requirements have been met, a validated status is achieved. The process of validation can be carried out under realistic use conditions or within a simulated use environment.

Design and development verification

Design and development verification is a process. It uses objective evidence to confirm that design and development outputs meet design and development input requirements. Whenever specified input requirements have been met, a verified status is achieved.

Development phase

The development phase of the project cycle includes development of the project plan, submission of the project for approval and development and definition of any contractual documents.

Distance education

A learning mode where students enrolled in a course do not attend the institution, but study off-campus and may submit assignments by mail or email.


The number of time units (not including holidays or other non-working periods) required to complete an activity or other project element. Normally expressed as hours, days, or weeks.

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Estimate At Completion

Earned value

The value of the work performed expressed in terms of the approved budget assigned to that work for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Also referred to as the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP).

Earned value method

A method for measuring project performance. It compares the work that was planned with the work actually accomplished (the earned value) to determine cost and schedule variances.

  1. The process of imparting knowledge or developing skills, understanding, attitudes, character or behaviours.
  2. The process of acquiring knowledge, skills, understanding, attitudes, etc.
  3. The knowledge, skills, understanding, attitudes, etc. acquired.
  4. The field of study concerned with teaching and learning.

Effectiveness refers to the degree to which a planned effect is achieved. Planned activities are effective if these activities are realised. Similarly, planned results are effective if these results are actually achieved.


Efficiency is a relationship between results achieved (outputs) and resources used (inputs). Efficiency can be enhanced by achieving more with the same or fewer resources. The efficiency of a process or system can be enhanced by achieving more or getting better results (outputs) with the same or fewer resources (inputs).


The number or percentage of the project personnel’s time units – hours, days, weeks which can be committed to this task. Not to be confused with duration but may effect duration estimation.

Element of competency

Any of the basic building blocks of a unit of competency which describe the key activities or elements of the work covered by the unit.

Endorsed component

The central part of a training package, endorsed by the National Training Framework Committee, comprising competency standards, assessment guidelines and qualifications.


An assessment of the likely quantitative result. Usually applied to project costs and duration and should always include some indication of accuracy (for example + or — 15%). Usually used with a modifier (for example preliminary, conceptual, feasibility). Some application areas have specific modifiers that imply pre-set accuracy ranges; for example, order of magnitude estimate, budget estimate, and definitive estimate in construction.

Estimate at completion

The expected total cost of an activity, group of activities, or of the project when the defined scope of work is completed. Most techniques for forecasting EAC include some adjustment of the original cost estimate based on project performance to date. Also shown as "estimated at completion". Often shown as EAC = actual or cost to date plus ETC. See also earned value.

Estimate to complete

The expected costs needed to complete all the remaining work for a schedule activity, work breakdown structure component, or the project.


Estimate To Complete


Earned Value


The process or results of an assessment or appraisal in relation to stated objectives, standards, or criteria; in vocational education and training may be applied to organisations, programs, policies, courses, etc.

Evidence guide

The part of a competency standard which provides a guide to the interpretation and assessment of the unit of competency, including the aspects which need to be emphasised in assessment, relationships to other units, and the required evidence of competency.

Exception report

The document which reports only major variations from the plan rather than all variations.


Definition of what the project scope does not include.

Experiential learning

Learning through experience, either in a real situation such as a workplace or in role play.

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Feasibility study

Method and techniques used to estimate technical, cost and resource data to determine potential and practicability ways of achieving project objectives.




The finalisation phase of the project involves the finishing or commissioning handover, close-out, and evaluation for the project.

Financial close-out

Financial close-out includes accounting analysis of how funds were spent in achieving a project. It signifies the point at which project general ledger codes are closed off.


The logical relationship where initiation of work of the successor activity depends upon the completion of work of the predecessor activity.


The logical relationship where initiation of work of the successor activity depends upon the completion of work of the predecessor activity.

Flexible delivery

A range of approaches to providing education and training, giving learners greater choice of when, where and how they learn. Flexible delivery may involve distance education, mixed-mode delivery, online education, self-paced learning, selfdirected learning, etc.

Flexible learning

The provision of a range of learning modes or methods, giving learners greater choice of when, where and how they learn. See also flexible delivery.


The amount of time that an activity or task may be delayed after its early start without delaying the project finish date. Float is a mathematical calculation and can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the schedule.
Formal reporting or management
Establishing effective relationships with stakeholders provides an opportunity to better understand their needs.

Formal education

Education or training provided in educational institutions such as schools, universities, colleges, etc. or off the job in a workplace, usually involving direction from a teacher or instructor.


The set of methodology, templates, approval processes, roles, & responsibilities developed for managing projects.



Functional manager

Someone with management authority over an organisational unit with a functional organisation, such as engineering, construction, or finance. The manager of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. Sometimes referred to as a line manager.
Functional organisation
Organisation structures in which staff are grouped hierarchically by specialty (for example: production, marketing, engineering, and accounting at the top level; engineering further divided into mechanical and electrical).

Further education

Post-secondary education, including higher education, adult education, and vocational education and training.

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Gantt chart

A graphic display of schedule related information. In the typical Gantt Chart, activities are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and planned activity durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars.


A goal is a strategic objective designed to provide a target for corporate achievement through the attainment of several enabling objectives. Projects contribute to achieving corporate goals.


The functions, responsibilities, processes, and procedures that define how the project or program is set up, managed, and controlled.

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Handover report

The purpose of the handover report is to obtain formal acceptance from the customer that deliverables have been practically completed, outstanding project actions and issues have been recorded, and all appropriate documentation has been provided.


Human Resources

Human resource management plan

Identifying and documenting the project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships, the staff management plan including — leave scheduling, backfilling strategy, leave approvals.

Human resources management

Includes all processes required to coordinate and effectively manage the project team. The project team includes all the people assigned roles and responsibilities for completing the project.

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The implementation phase of the project cycle involves carrying out the work required to produce the agreed deliverables of the project and the monitoring and control of activities associated therewith.

Informal learning

The acquisition of knowledge and skills through experience, reading, social contact, etc.


The term infrastructure refers to the entire system of facilities, equipment, and services that an organisation needs in order to function. Infrastructure includes buildings and workspaces (including related utilities), process equipment (both hardware and software), support services (such as transportation and communications), and information systems.


Inspections use observation, measurement, testing and judgment to evaluate conformity. Inspection results are compared with specified requirements in order to establish whether conformity has been achieved. Product inspections compare product characteristics with product requirements in order to evaluate conformity.

Instructional design

The design and development of instructional materials and learning activities to meet learning needs.

Integrated change control

Identifying, evaluating and managing changes across the entire project (software can usually assist in project integration management). Integrated change control is concerned with:

  • Influencing the factors which create changes to ensure that changes are beneficial
  • Determining that change has occurred
  • Managing the actual changes when and as they occur
Interested party

An interested party is a person or group that has a stake in the success or performance of an organization. Interested parties may be directly affected by the organization or actively concerned about its performance. Interested parties can come from inside or outside of the organization. Examples of interested parties include customers, suppliers, owners, partners, employees, unions, bankers, or members of the general public. Interested parties are also referred to as stakeholders.


International Organisation for Standardisation, also known as International Standards Organisation.

ISO 9000

A set of internationally recognised and accepted standards, some of which specify requirements for quality systems (e.g. ISO 9001), while others provide guidance to aid in the interpretation and implementation of the quality system (e.g. ISO 9000–2).


A point or matter in question or in dispute, or a point of matter that is not settled and is under discussion or over which there are opposing views or disagreements, such as when a risk eventuates.

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Key competency

Any of several generic skills or competencies considered essential for people to participate effectively in the workforce. Key competencies apply to work generally, rather than being specific to work in a particular occupation or industry. The Finn Report (1991) identified six key areas of competence which were subsequently developed by the Mayer committee (1992) into seven key competencies: collecting, analysing and organising information; communicating ideas and information; planning and organising activities; working with others and in teams; using mathematical ideas and techniques; solving problems; and using technology.

Key performance indicator

A key performance indicator (KPI) is a metric or measure. KPIs are used to quantify and evaluate organisational success. They measure how much success you’ve had and how much progress you’ve made relative to the objectives you wish to achieve. KPIs are also used to set measurable objectives, evaluate progress, monitor trends, make improvements, and support decision making. KPIs should be quantifiable and appropriate and should collect information that is useful to your organisation and relevant to the needs and expectations of interested parties.


Key Performance Indicator

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  1. The process of acquiring knowledge, attitudes, or skills from study, instruction, or experience.
  2. The knowledge, attitudes, or skills acquired.
Learning culture

An environment in which opportunities for learning are openly valued and supported and are built, where possible, into all activities.

Learning pathway

A path or sequence of learning or experience that can be followed to attain competency. Learning pathways may be included as part of the non-endorsed component of a training package.

Learning strategy

A non-endorsed component of a training package which provides information on how training programs may be organised in workplaces and training institutions. This may include information on learning pathways, model training programs, and training materials.

Life cycle costing

The cost of an asset over its full life, including acquisition, operating, maintenance, and disposal costs when evaluating various alternatives.

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The term management refers to all the activities that are used to coordinate, direct, and control an organisation. In the context of a quality system, the term management does not refer to people. It refers to activities.

Management review

The overall purpose of a management review is to evaluate the suitability, adequacy, and effectiveness of an organisation's quality management system, and to look for improvement opportunities.

Master schedule

An executive summary which identifies the major components of a project against which dates for achievement are estimated, particularly those achievement dates designated as milestones.

Matrix organisation

Any organisational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of individuals assigned to the project.

Maturity model

Explanation of the different levels of project management maturity: 1. initial, 2. planned, 3. managed, 4. integrated and 5. optimised.

Measuring equipment

In the context of this standard, measuring equipment includes all the things that are needed to carry out a measurement process. Accordingly, measuring equipment includes measuring instruments and apparatuses as well as all the associated software, standards, and reference materials.


An experienced and trusted advisor.


A system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline, such as a project.


A significant event in the project, usually completion of a major deliverable, at a given point in time.

Milestone schedule

A summary level schedule which identifies the major milestones. See also master schedule and key activity schedule.


A mission statement explains why an organisation exists.

Modular course

A course composed of modules.


(also called subject) A unit of training which can be completed on its own or as part of a course. Modules may also result in the attainment of one or more units of competency.


Collect project performance data with respect to a plan, produce performance measures, and report and disseminate performance information.


Training workers in a number of skills, enabling them to perform a variety of tasks or functions across traditional boundaries. Multiskilling may be horizontal (broad skilling), vertical (upskilling) or diagonal (contributory skilling).

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National Training Framework

The component parts of the vocational education and training system—national competency standards, national qualifications and national assessment guidelines—and their relationship to each other including implementation, quality assurance and recognition strategies and procedures. Endorsed training packages provide the implementation tools.

National Training Information Service

An online database (at http://www.ntis.gov.au/) developed by the Australian National Training Authority, providing information on vocational education and training in Australia, including details of training packages, competency standards, assessment guidelines, courses, qualifications, and registered training organisations.

Needs analysis

Needs analysis is the process of determining what an organisation needs to meet a specified objective. This could be undertaken at any level of management. At the project level, needs analysis is undertaken against proposals or work requests to determine if there is a defined need for a capability, the business objectives to be satisfied, and the relative priority of the need. Needs analysis identifies organisational or process problems and shortcomings.


A project network shows the tasks and the relationship between each in a block diagram. Information provided in a network diagram is used to determine the logical sequence of project tasks, and the expected duration of the project.

Network analysis

The process of identifying early and late start and finish dates for the incomplete portions of project activities. See also Critical Path Method (CPM), Program Evaluation, and Review Technique (PERT).

Non-endorsed component

The parts of a training package not required to be endorsed by the National Training Framework Committee, including support materials for learning, training, assessment, and professional development.

Non-formal education

Organised education and training outside of the formal education system.

Nonconforming product

When one or more characteristics of a product fail to meet specified requirements, it is referred to as a nonconforming product. When a product deviates from specified product requirements, it fails to conform. Nonconforming products must be identified and controlled to prevent unintended use or delivery.


Nonconformity refers to a failure to comply with requirements. A requirement is a need, expectation, or obligation. It can be stated or implied by an organisation, its customers, or other interested parties.
There are many types of requirements. Some of these include quality requirements, customer requirements, management requirements, product requirements, and legal requirements. Whenever your organisation fails to meet one of these requirements, a nonconformity occurs.


National Training Framework


National Training Information Service

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A concise statement or something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, or a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or a service to be performed.

Objective evidence

Objective evidence is information that shows or proves that something exists or is true. Objective evidence can be collected by performing observations, measurements, tests, or by using any other suitable method.

Off-the-job training

Training which takes place away from a person’s job, usually off the premises, e.g. at TAFE, but may be on the premises, e.g. in a special training area.

On-site training

Training conducted at the work site (e.g. in a training room) but not on the job.

On-the-job training

Training undertaken in the workplace as part of the productive work of the learner.

Online learning

Learning or training conducted via a computer network, e.g. using the internet and the World Wide Web, a local area network (LAN), or an intranet.

Options analysis

The purpose of the options analysis is to document the options investigated and detail the evaluation criteria in selecting and justifying the preferred option to progress to the Business Case.

Organisational process assets

Any or all process related assets, from any or all of the organisations involved in the project that are or can be used to influence the project’s success. These process assets include formal and informal plans, policies, procedures, and guidelines. The process assets also include the organisations knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information.

Organisations Environment

Your organisation’s environment includes all the internal and external factors and conditions that can affect how well you achieve your objectives and how you treat interested parties.


Project Management: A statement of the higher level more intangible objective for what the project is to achieve. Outcomes are achieved as a result of projects or activities undertaken to effect the change that is on the creation of capability that has been implemented into an operational context. Outcomes differ from benefits in that benefits are the measurable, financial, quantifiable, or observable difference between the initial state and the outcome.
Training: Result or consequence of participation in, or completion, of an education or training program, e.g. employment, promotion, higher salary, further study.


A product, result, or service generated by a process. See also deliverable. Outputs are products, services or conditions produced by projects and activities and are delivered to a recipient within or outside the organisation. Also known as products, they can be physical products: reports, briefing documents, records and physical objects or the result of service provision.

Outsourced process

An outsourced process is any process that is part of the organisation’s quality management system (QMS) but is performed by a party that is external to the organisation.

Overall project

The controlling project which has end to end responsibility for the four project phases and covers all component areas.

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Parametric estimating

An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables to calculate an estimate such as square meterage in construction for time and cost estimation. To calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as scope, cost, budget, and duration.

Performance criteria

The part of a competency standard specifying the required level of performance in terms of a set of outcomes which need to be achieved in order to be deemed competent.

Performance indicator

A criterion or measure for monitoring or evaluating the efficiency or effectiveness of a system or service, which may be used to demonstrate accountability and to identify areas for improvement.

Performance reporting

The documentation and presentation of organised and summarised information on aspects of project performance against established criteria such as cost, time, and resource usage. Reports may include: bar-charts, S-curves, histograms, tables.


Program Evaluation and Review Technique


Project Manager


Project management body of knowledge. The 'Project Management Body of Knowledge' (PMBOK®) is an inclusive term that describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. This full body of knowledge includes knowledge of proven, traditional practices, which are widely applied, as well as knowledge of innovative and advanced practices, which may have seen more limited use. The full body of knowledge concerning project management is that which resides with the practitioners and academics that apply and advance it.


All the programs and stand-alone projects being undertaken by an organisation.

Portfolio Management Office

A Portfolio Management Office provides the decision support behind successful portfolio management. They are responsible for advising senior management on the composition of the portfolio, its progress against plans and conflicting priorities, risks and issues. The portfolio office also provides the challenge and scrutiny of portfolio information and recommends options/decisions to support those choices

Post-implementation review

A post-implementation review (PIR) is completed as the final stage of any project, particularly major projects, to identify lessons that can be usefully learned for the benefit of future activities. The PIR is the final step in the audit trail of a project and is essential for project accountability.

Preventive action

Preventive actions are steps that are taken to remove the causes of potential nonconformities or potential situations that are undesirable.
The preventive action process is designed to prevent the occurrence of nonconformities or situations that do not yet exist. It tries to prevent occurrence by eliminating causes.
While corrective actions prevent recurrence, preventive actions prevent occurrence. Both types of actions are intended to prevent nonconformities.
Preventive actions address potential problems, ones that haven't yet occurred. In general, the preventive action process can be thought of as a risk analysis process.


A Project scheduling software program.

Prior learning

Skills and knowledge acquired from previous study, work or life experiences. See also recognition of prior learning (RPL).

Problem resolution

The interaction between the project manager and a contributing agency responsible for achievement of agreed objectives or milestones with the aim of finding a solution to technical, scheduling, resource availability.


A procedure is a way of carrying out a process or activity.


A process is a set of activities that are interrelated or that interact with one another. Processes use resources to transform inputs into outputs. Processes are interconnected because the output from one process becomes the input for another process.

Process (line) manager

A process manager is the person designated to manage the specific elements of a production or service process.

Process approach

The process approach is a management strategy. When managers use a process approach, it means that they manage the processes that make up their organisation, the interaction between these processes, and the inputs and outputs that tie these processes together.

Process-based quality management system

A process-based quality management system uses a process approach to manage and control how its quality policy is implemented and how its quality objectives are achieved. A process-based QMS is a network of interrelated and interconnected processes.


The acquisition of goods and services required to perform the project.

Procurement management plan

The document that describes how procurement progresses from developing procurement documentation through contract closure will be managed.


A product is the output of a process. There are four generic product categories: services, software, hardware, and processed materials.

Product inspection

Product inspection is an activity that compares product characteristics with product requirements in order to evaluate conformity

Product realisation

A product starts out as an idea. The idea is realised or actualised by following a set of product realisation processes. Product realisation refers to all the processes that are used to bring products into being.


A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available form managing them individually. Programs may include elements of related work outside of the scope of the discrete projects in the program. The common element is that each project has an objective which is consistent with the goals and objectives of the corporate and business plans.

Program evaluation and review technique

A technique for estimating that applies a weighted average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.

Program management

The coordinated, direction and implementation of a dossier of projects and transformation activities to achieve outcomes and realise benefits of strategic importance.

Program manager

The role responsible for the set-up, management, and delivery of the program. Must be allocated to a single individual.

Program Office

The function providing the information hub and standards, custodian for a program and its delivery objectives; could provide support for more than one program.

Progressive elaboration

Continuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information and more accurate estimates become available as the project processes and thereby producing more accurate and complete plans that result from the successive iterations of the planning process.


A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. It has a clearly defined start and end time, a structured set of activities and tasks, a budget and a specified business case. It is developed to achieve a unique and well-defined product, service, or objective or deliver well defined benefits and is managed according to a specific project management methodology.

Project advisory group

The group advising the sponsor, project manager. The group's role involves:

  • provide feedback to the project manager and team on issues referred to it
  • identify issues which may impact on the project
Project change

An approved change to project work content caused by a change to the project scope of work or special circumstances (delivery delays, weather, industrial unrest, and so on).

Project close out

A process that provides for acceptance of the project by the project sponsor, completion of project records, final revision and issue of documentation to reflect 'as-delivered' circumstances, agreement of service or maintenance plans and completion of the project completion report.

Project communications management

Project communications management includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of project information.

Project customer

A person with authority, nominated to represent the organisation(s) that receives the business benefit of the project. The customer's role includes:

  • ensure the project output meets the needs of the customer's organisation
  • ensure the project is aligned with the strategic goals of the organisation
  • provide any funding that may be required for the project
  • ensure the project business benefits are realised
Project environment

The combined internal and external forces which assist or restrict the attainment of the project objectives. These could be business or project related or may be due to political, economic, technological, regulatory, or internal ('culture') conditions.

Project execution

Carrying out the project plan. It is the primary process for executing the project plan. The vast majority of the project's budget will be expended in performing this process.

Project life cycle

A collection of specific project phases whose name and number are determined by the control needs of the organisation or organisations involved in the project. The generic project life cycle has four stages: concept, development, implementation, and finalisation.

Project management

It is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. It includes the planning, organising, monitoring, and controlling of all aspects of a project in a continuous process to achieve its objectives.

Project Management Institute

Project Management Institute (PMI) is one of the world's largest professional membership associations, with half a million members and credential holders in more than 185 countries. It is a not-for-profit organization that advances the project management profession through globally recognized standards and certifications, collaborative communities, an extensive research program, and professional development opportunities.

Project management knowledge areas

An identified area of project management defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes, practices, inputs, outputs, tools, and techniques. There are nine core project management knowledge areas including: integration, scope, risk, quality, cost, time, procurement, human resources, and communications.

Project management methodology

Is a set of inter-related phases, activities, and tasks that define the project process from the start through to completion. Each phase of the project produces a major deliverable that contributes towards achieving project objectives.

Project manager

The person given the authority and responsibility to manage the project on a day-to-day basis to deliver the project within the time and budget constraints agreed with the sponsor or program manager to the customer’s satisfaction.

Project network diagram

Any schematic display of the logical relationships of project activities. Always drawn from left to right to reflect project chronology.

Project organisational charts

A document that graphically depicts the project team members and their interrelationships for a specific project.

Project phase

A collection of logically related project activities and tasks usually culminating in the completion of a major deliverable. Project phases are mainly completed sequentially, but can overlap in some project situations. A project phase is a component of a project life cycle. A project phase is not a project management process group.

Project plan

A formal, approved document used as a basis for project control. The primary uses of the project plan are to document planning assumptions and decisions, to facilitate communication among stakeholders, to achieve a common understanding and to document approved scope, cost, schedule baselines, risk, quality, human resources, and procurement requirements.

Project planning

The development and maintenance of the project plan.

Project procurement management

Includes the processes to purchase or acquire the products, services, or results needed from outside the project team to perform the work.

Project proposal

The purpose of the Project Proposal is to describe the specific objective to be addressed and establish the scope and rational behind the project and outcomes required. It also describes the plan for conducting the Concept Phase.

Project quality management

Includes the processes and activities of the performing organisation that determine quality policies, procedures, specifications, objectives and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it is undertaken.

Project schedule

The planned dates for performing activities and the planned dates for meeting milestones. Sometimes termed the 'project program'.

Project sponsor

The project sponsor a person with authority, nominated to represent the organisation undertaking the project. The sponsor's role includes:

  • Ensuring the project outputs meets the needs of the customer
  • Maintain the organisational capacity to resource the project
  • Authorise or obtain organisational commitment to undertake the project
  • Obtain any funding that may be required for the project
Project staff assignments

Project staff assignments are the list of project duties for team members. Staff Assignments are often used during the monitoring and controlling process group to evaluate individual team members.

Project strategy

The project strategy sets out the way in which the project is planned to be developed. It will identify the main choices that have to be made, the mechanisms by which information will be acquired in support of the decision making processes, the criteria that will be applied, and the expected timing. The project strategy will also specify the approval arrangements that will apply to particular kinds of decisions involved in the project.

Project team members

The people who are assigned to a project team.

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Quality Assurance


Quality management system

Qualitative analysis

A descriptive analysis of data which requires the use of judgement.


The quality of something can be determined by comparing a set of inherent characteristics with a set of requirements. If those inherent characteristics meet all requirements, high or excellent quality is achieved. If those characteristics do not meet all requirements, a low or poor level of quality is achieved.

Quality assurance

Refers to the procedures and processes used within the organisation, to verify that deliverables are of acceptable quality and that they meet the completeness and correctness criteria established.

Quality audits

A structured review of quality activities that identify lessons learned. These lessons learned are used for process improvement.

Quality characteristic

A quality characteristic is tied to a requirement and is an inherent feature or property of a product, process, or system.

Quality control

Quality control is a set of activities intended to ensure that quality requirements are actually being met.

Quality improvement

Quality improvement refers to anything that enhances an organisation's ability to meet quality requirements.

Quality management

Quality management includes all the activities that organisations use to direct, control, and coordinate quality. These activities include formulating a quality policy and setting quality objectives. They also include quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement.

Quality management system

A quality management system is a set of interrelated or interacting elements that organisations use to direct and control how quality policies are implemented and quality objectives are achieved.

Quality manual

A quality manual documents an organisation's quality management system (QMS).

Quality objectives

A quality objective is a quality oriented goal. A quality objective is something you aim for or try to achieve.

Quality plan

A quality plan is a document that is used to specify the procedures and resources that will be needed to carry out a project, perform a process, realise a product, or manage a contract. Quality plans also specify who will do what and when.

Quality planning

Quality planning involves setting quality objectives and then specifying the operational processes and resources that will be needed to achieve those objectives.

Quality policy

An organisation’s quality policy defines top management’s commitment to quality. A quality policy statement should describe an organisation’s general quality orientation and clarify its basic intentions.

Quality review

A Quality review is an inspection with a specific structure, defined roles, and procedure designed to ensure a product’s completeness and adherence to standards. The participants are drawn from those with an interest in the product and those with the necessary skills to review its correctness. An example of the checks made by a Quality Review is 'does the product match the Quality Criteria in the Product Description?'

Quantitative analysis

The process of analysing data with the use of numerical values.

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Responsibility Assignment Matrix

Range of variables

(also called range statement) The part of a competency standard which specifies the range of contexts and conditions to which the performance criteria apply.


Recognition of Current Competencies

Recognition of current competencies

The acknowledgement of competencies currently held by a person, acquired through training, work or life experience. More commonly known as recognition of prior learning

Recognition of prior learning

The acknowledgement of a person’s skills and knowledge acquired through previous training, work or life experience, which may be used to grant status or credit in a subject or module.


A record is a type of document. Records provide evidence that activities have been performed or results have been achieved. They always document the past. Records can, for example, be used to show that traceability requirements are being met, that verification is being performed, and that preventive and corrective actions are being carried out.

Refresher course

A course which revises or updates previously acquired knowledge and skills.

Related projects

Those projects that may affect or be affected by the project under consideration.

Relationship management

Managing relationships with stakeholders is about effectively working with them to ensure business requirements are satisfied. This may require a balance between formal reporting or management arrangements and 'soft' issues relating to informal communication, behaviours, and culture.


Link activities together based upon their input and output requirements. The first activity in the relationship is called the predecessor and the second activity is called the successor. Relationships can follow four different logic types – Finish to Start, Start to Start, Finish to Finish and Start to Finish. Lags, or delays, both positive and negative can be associated with activities to reflect the relationship between linked activities.


A requirement is a need, expectation, or obligation. It can be stated or implied by an organisation, its customers, or other interested parties. A specified requirement is one that has been stated (in a document for example), whereas an implied requirement is a need, expectation, or obligation that is common practice or customary.

Requirements analysis or definition

Requirements analysis and definition is undertaken to determine what functionality or capability is required to meet a defined need (see needs analysis). The requirements definition provides a solution, in broad terms, to problems raised in needs analysis. Requirements definition usually involves some options analysis. This is the first stage in defining the project scope.

Resource levelling

Any form of schedule network analysis in which scheduling decisions (start and finish dates) are driven by resource constraints (e.g. limited resource availability or difficult-to-manage changes in resource availability levels).

Responsibility assignment matrix

A structure which relates the project organisation structure to the work breakdown structure (WBS) to help ensure that each element of the project's scope of work is assigned to a responsible individual.

Responsible authority

The responsible authority is that person or appointment responsible for ensuring that he designated task is completed. Where appropriate, supporting authorities are also indicated.


A review is an activity. Its purpose is to figure out how well the thing being reviewed is capable of achieving established objectives. Reviews ask the following question: is the subject of the review a suitable, adequate, effective, and efficient way of achieving your organisation’s objectives?


‘The effect of uncertainty on objectives’, as indicated in the ‘Risk Management – Principles and guidelines’ AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009.

Risk analysis

A systematic use of available information to determine the likelihood if specified events and their consequences and their impact on attaining project or contract or customer expectations.

Risk identification or quantification

The process of determining possible outcomes or occurrences associated with an activity, why these might occur and how.

Risk management

Is defined as 'the systematic application of management policies, procedures, and practices to the tasks of identifying, analysing, evaluating, treating, and monitoring risks'. ISO 31000:2009 defines risk as '… the chance of something happening that will have an impact on objectives'. It is measured in terms of consequence and likelihood.

Risk management framework

Is designed to raise awareness of threats, and opportunities and to minimise the impact of risks.

Risk management plan

The document which describes how the project risks will be managed. It should include contingency planning and management of contingency funding. It will usually be attached as an appendix to the Project Management Plan


Recognition of Prior Learning

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A graphical display of cumulative costs, labour hours, percentage of work, or other quantities plotted against time. Used to depict planned value, earned value, and actual cost of project work. The name derives from the S-like shape of the curve produced across the project life cycle.

Schedule optimism

Is required when the required finish date for the project is earlier than the scheduled finish date. To shorten the schedule several techniques can be employed including adding resources, removing constraints and reducing scope. Resource levelling is available as a software technique and works to smooth resource overloads by delaying conflicting activities.


The project scope is the work that must be performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions. Project scope is divided into the following parts:

  • A high level description of work to be undertaken, and the products or services to be provided.
  • Assumptions about the project.
  • Exclusions — what the project will not be doing.
  • Constraint — a known fact that places a limitation on project planning.
Scope creep

The unconscious shift in the project scope resulting from uncontrolled changes to requirements. For example, adding features and functionality to project scope without addressing the effects on time, costs, and resources or without customer approval.

Scope management plan

The document that describes how the project scope will be defined, developed and verified and how the work breakdown structure (WBS) will be created and defined, and that provides guidance on how the project scope will be managed and controlled by the project management team. It is contained in or is a subsidiary plan of the project management plan.

Scope Statement

Define the limits of the project in terms of time, quality, and cost. It is essential that each of those components is carefully evaluated and included into the statement, for a change in one will affect the other two. As with most parts of a project plan, the scope statement can be reiterated, with the understanding that every component is affected by the change in one, and that subsequent changes in the duration of the project could occur as a result.


Quality Management System: Self-assessment is a comprehensive and systematic review of an organisation’s overall maturity and is used to help achieve and sustain organisational success. Maturity self-assessments evaluate an organisation’s practices and performance and identify improvement and innovation opportunities. Self-assessment results are used to identify and recognise best practices and to encourage innovation and improvement.
Training: A process in which learners or organisations assess their own performance against particular standards or criteria; (in competency-based training) a process in which learners assess their own performance against competency standards; (in quality endorsement) a process in which an organisation assesses the extent to which it satisfies the criteria for quality endorsement, identifying opportunities for improvement.

Self-directed learning

Learning in which the learner is the principal driving force, deciding how, when, and at what pace learning takes place.

Self-paced learning

Learning undertaken at a student’s own pace.


A service is a type of product. Service is always the result of an activity or interaction between a service supplier and a customer and can take many forms.

Short course

A course of vocational education and training which stands alone and does not usually lead to a full qualification. A statement of attainment may be issued on successful completion.

Skills analysis

An identification of the skills or competencies needed for each job.

Skills audit

An identification of the skills required and held by the workforce.


Statement Of Work

Special process

A special process is any production or service delivery process that generates outputs that cannot be measured, monitored, or verified until it's too late. It's often too late because deficiencies may not be obvious until after the resulting products have been used or services have been delivered. In order to prevent output deficiencies, these special processes must be validated in order to prove that they can generate planned results.


The person or group that provides the financial resources, in cash or in kind, for the project.

Staffing management plan

The document that describes when and how human resource requirements will be met. It is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the human resources plan.


Individuals and organisations that are involved in, or may be affected by, project activities. A stakeholder may also exert influence over the project and its deliverables.


Quality Management System: A standard is a document. It is a set of rules that control how people develop and manage materials, products, services, technologies, processes, and systems.
Training: A level or measure of achievement; a statement of performance or outcome criteria.

Statement of attainment

Certification issued to a student for partial completion of a qualification, including, where relevant, the units of competency achieved under nationally endorsed standards. Achievements recognised by statements of attainment can accumulate towards a qualification within the Australian Qualifications Framework.

Statement of work

A description of products, services or results to be supplied under contract.


A strategy is a logically structured plan or method for achieving long term goals.


A smaller portion of the overall project created when a project is sub-divided into more manageable components or pieces. The sub-project may be delivered independently from other sub-projects and can be managed as a project. However, all sub-projects have a reporting responsibility through to the parent project.


A supplier is a person or an organisation that provides products. Suppliers can be either internal or external to the organisation.

Sustained success

An organisation achieves sustained success when it meets its objectives and continues to do so over the long term.


An outline of a course or subject (module) which lists what is to be taught or learnt.

Systems approach

When managers use a systems approach, it means that they treat the interrelated processes that make up an organisation as an integrated system and then they use this system to achieve its objectives. A system is a set of elements that are interrelated or interact with one another.

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Target audience

The intended audience.


A subdivision of an activity. A task is an element of the project which usually results in a single deliverable which might take the form of a document or tangible component of the required deliverable.

Task analysis

A process of identifying the elements or steps which make up a task or activity, e.g. listing the elements and evidence required for a unit of competency.

Team performance assessment

The documented formal or informal assessment of the project team's performance. Common indications are staff turnover rates, team dynamics, and skill levels. After analysing the information, project managers can identify and resolve problems, reduce conflicts, and improve overall team work.

Top management

The term top management refers to a person or a group of people at the highest level within an organisation. It means the people who coordinate, direct, and control organisations.


Traceability is the ability to identify and trace the history, distribution, location, and application of products, parts, and materials. A traceability system records and follows the trail as products, parts, and materials come from suppliers and are processed and ultimately distributed as end products.


The development of skills, knowledge, attitudes, competencies, etc. through instruction or practice.

Training culture

An environment in which training is seen as important and is closely linked with business strategy, particularly in creating competitive advantage for an enterprise. Opportunities are given to all employees to participate in training to develop their skills and competencies.

Training package

An integrated set of nationally endorsed standards, guidelines and qualifications for training, assessing and recognising people’s skills, developed by industry to meet the training needs of an industry or group of industries. Training packages consist of core endorsed components of competency standards, assessment guidelines and qualifications, and optional non-endorsed components of support materials such as learning strategies, assessment resources and professional development materials.

Training program

A set of education and training activities designed to achieve a specific vocational outcome, e.g. a course, module (subject), on-the-job training, etc.

Two-Way communication

Is vital for the success of the project. Good communication prevents misunderstandings, surprises, duplication of effort, and can help to reveal omissions and misallocation of resources early enough to permit corrections.

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Unit of competency

A component of a competency standard. A unit of competency is a statement of a key function or role in a particular job or occupation. See also element of competency, performance criteria, range of variables.


Often referred to as the end-user, the user will actually utilise the project output and therefore is a key stakeholder group for the project.

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Validation is a process. It uses objective evidence to confirm that the requirements which define an intended use or application have been met.

Value Analysis

An activity for optimising cost performance. It involves the systematic use of techniques which identify the required functions of an item, establish values for these functions, and provide the functions at the lowest overall cost without loss of performance (optimum overall cost).


Values are the general principles and beliefs that are important to your organisation.


Verification is a process. It uses objective evidence to confirm that specified requirements have been met. Whenever specified requirements have been met, a verified status is achieved.


Vocational Education and Training


Vision describes what an organisation wants to be and how it wants to be seen by interested parties.

Vocational education and training

Post-compulsory education and training, excluding degree and higher level programs delivered by higher education institutions, which provides people with occupational or work-related knowledge and skills. VET also includes programs which provide the basis for subsequent vocational programs.

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Work Breakdown Structure

Work breakdown structure

A product oriented family tree of phases, activities and tasks which organises, defines displays the total work to be accomplished in order to achieve the final objectives of a project. Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project. It is a system for subdividing a project into manageable work packets, components, or elements to provide a common framework for scope schedule, costs, allocation of responsibility, communications risk assessment monitoring, and control.

Work breakdown structure dictionary

A document that describes each component in the WBS. For each WBS component, the WBS dictionary includes a brief definition of the scope or statement of work. defined deliverable(s), a list of associated activities, and a list of milestones. Other information may include: responsible organisation, start, and end dates, resources required, an estimate of cost, charge number, contract information, quality requirements, and technical references to facilitate performance of the work.

Work environment

The term work environment refers to working conditions. It refers to all of the conditions and factors that influence work. In general, these include physical, social, psychological, and environmental conditions and factors. Work environment includes lighting, temperature, and noise factors, as well as the whole range of ergonomic influences. It also includes things like supervisory practices as well as reward and recognition programs. All of these things influence work.

Work management

The work management refers to the management of the work packages to produce a solution or product or service or project output. These work packages are not done in isolation to the Project Management but rather provide the context for the project.

Work packages or packets

Detailed description of short span jobs, tasks, or material items identified for accomplishing the work required to complete the project.

Work performance information

Information and data, on the status of the project schedule activities being performed to accomplish the project work, collected as part of the direct and manage project execution processes. Information includes: status of deliverables; implementation status for change requests, corrective actions, preventative actions and defect repairs; forecasted estimates to complete; reported percent of work physically completed; achieved value of technical performance measures; start and finish dates of schedule activities.

Work-based training

Training provided by an organisation primarily for its own employees using the employer’s own staff or consultants. Workbased training can be conducted either onsite or at an off-site location.

Workplace assessment

The gathering and judging of evidence during normal work activities in order to determine whether a required standard has been achieved. Workplace assessment usually involves observation of work in progress, checking the product(s) of a work activity, and receiving oral responses to questions posed while work is in progress.

Workplace learning

Learning or training undertaken in the workplace, usually on the job, including on-the-job training under normal operational conditions, and on-site training, which is conducted away from the work process (e.g. in a training room).

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